My thoughts are: the wiring looks pretty good on the armature. So it didn't overheat and cause the delamination of the armature.
So it is very likely that the original bonding or rather moulding in of the strips didn't manage to resist centrifugal forces.
Just gluing them back in - with a potentially lower strenght method than original - isn't going to do it for very long.
However the comutator strips are quite thick. The rub marks from the carbon brushes are also quite a bit narrower than the commutator. So I would glue them and then skim it GENTLY. Then cut a step or groove in the bits not touched by the brushes. In that step or the groove, I would force/press some kind of non-conductive ring. Maybe a thin plastic one and a steel hoop on top of it?
In any case, you will have to make it stronger than it was new.....