Theres really no cheap solution unless given the materials.
Woods available and easy to work with but doesn't take a liking to machinery and vibrations.
Did try 4x2" in the 90's for the framework but couldn't bare the noise of saw, small mill, grinder and bench drill. Best thing ever done was rip it out after a few weeks.
My shops arranged so that it revolves around what I need and do most often. No long wasted time walks to find a drill bit and the like, its all to hand in main working area.
Ended up building benches around machinery from 2x1" SHS topped off with cheap kitchen work surface from a specialist (not dear places like B&Q, Ikea and the like.) £35 per 3.6M length and cut to exact size as many pieces from that 3M length! B&Q price for same £120+ each. 7 off 6M lengths of SHS didn't go very far, already had 3 so had to butcher existing framework all rawl bolted to the walls - solid.
Have a 6" quick release Woden vice even with a 6ft of 1/ 1/4" x 1/8" stainless tube giving leverage on handle, the particular bench don't move from wall. Vice to work surface, work surface screwed to SHS, SHS rawl bolted to walls - solid.
Benches are all different heights to suit application ie the one lathe I can get the tail stock off. Others same height as kitchen great for chucking a compressor underneath even a cnc, mig, propane and calor gas heater etc.
You will be amased what you can get in, I have mates with 5 times the area and actually less in there and no where to move.
Likewise better to use the walls to store lighter items, make your own brackets uprights and horizontal shelves welded together from 1"x1"x 1/8". I have a mix of shelves some the backing off stainless steel bundles of steel, steel wardrobe doors and so on. MDF not very good you will need a lot more bracketry at shorter intervals.
For those that have wooded sheds and the like, its a great way to beef up the structure, mines brick by the way.